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What is P2P Network? How does Peer to Peer work? (2022)

In this article, we'll explore what P2P networks are, how they work, and why understanding them is so important.
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7 min read
Published Sep 30 2021
Updated Apr 02 2024
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As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, it's more important than ever to understand how different types of networks function. One particularly important type of network is peer-to-peer (P2P).

What is P2P (Peer to peer)?

In the simplest of terms, P2P (peer to peer) is a type of networking where each computer in the network can act as both a client and a server. This means that each device on the network can connect to and exchange data with any other device on the network without the need for a central server.

The peer-to-peer network structure of blockchain technology enables a decentralized system that is not centrally controlled by any one party. This allows for increased security and transparency, as well as decreased costs associated with traditional middlemen.


P2P in cryptocurrency means that the currency transactions happen between two people without any third-party involvement like banks, PayPal, etc. The transaction happens over the internet between the peers who have connected to each other through a P2P network.

How does P2P work?

In traditional centralized systems, there is always a central authority that controls the flow of information and manages transactions. This central entity can be anything from a bank to a government. But in a decentralized system like blockchain, there is no central authority. Instead, transactions are managed by a network of computers, or "nodes."

Each node in the network has a copy of the blockchain, which is a shared ledger of all transactions that have ever taken place. When a new transaction is made, it is broadcast to all the nodes in the network. The nodes then verify the transaction and add it to the blockchain.

Because there is no central authority, blockchain is incredibly secure. Transactions cannot be tampered with or reversed because they are recorded on the blockchain in a way that is permanent and transparent.

There are many different models of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The most popular P2P models are:

Centralized P2P: In this model, there is a central server that stores all the files and coordinates the activities of the network. The advantage of this model is that it is very easy to use and set up. The disadvantage is that the central server is a single point of failure and can become a bottleneck if there are too many users.
Decentralized P2P: In this model, there is no central server; instead, each client in the network acts as both a server and a client. Clients can search for and download files from any other client in the network. Decentralized P2P networks are more resilient than centralized ones since there is no single point of failure. However, they can be more difficult to search since each client only has a limited view of the overall network.
Hybrid P2P: This model combines features of both centralized and decentralized P2P networks. There is usually a central server that maintains a list of all the files shared by the clients in the network, but individual clients also act as servers, sharing some of the load. This hybrid approach can provide the best of both worlds, but it can also be more complex to set up and manage.

However, there are many different variations of these basic models, and new ones are always being developed. The important thing is to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each model so that you can choose the one that is best suited for your needs.

What is P2P used for?

P2p also has a number of other potential uses in the cryptocurrency space, such as insurance, payments, and storage. As the industry continues to grow and evolve, it's likely that we'll see more and more innovative applications for p2p technology in the years to come.

Here are  a few examples of how p2p technology is being used in the cryptocurrency space today.

P2P lending

P2P crypto lending is a process where two individuals can lend and borrow money from each other without the need for a financial institution. This type of lending is often done through online platforms or apps that connect borrowers and lenders.

Crypto lending platforms typically offer higher interest rates than traditional banks, making them a more attractive option for borrowers. For lenders, p2p crypto lending offers the opportunity to earn interest on their digital assets.

P2P crypto lending platforms have become increasingly popular in recent years as the cryptocurrency industry has grown. Some of the most popular p2p crypto lending platforms include Blockfi, Nexo, and Celsius Network. These platforms allow users to borrow or lend digital assets such as Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Litecoin (LTC), and others.

The benefits of p2p crypto lending include the ability to earn interest on digital assets, access to loans without the need for a bank, and the ability to use cryptocurrency as collateral for a loan.

The risks of p2p crypto lending include the possibility of loss if the borrower defaults on the loan, platform risk, and counterparty risk.

When choosing a p2p crypto lending platform, it is important to consider the interest rates offered, the types of assets supported, and the platform’s reputation. Additionally, it is important to understand the risks involved in p2p crypto lending before getting started.

P2P payments

In cryptocurrency, a P2P payment is a transaction that occurs between two parties without the need for a third-party intermediary. P2P payments can be made using a variety of different cryptocurrencies, but Bitcoin is by far the most popular option.

These are a few basic steps to starting a P2P payment:

In order to make a P2P payment, both parties must have a cryptocurrency wallet set up.
Once both parties have set up their wallets, they can then agree on an amount to be transferred.
The transaction will then be processed and completed on the blockchain, which is the decentralized ledger that all cryptocurrencies use.

P2P payments are becoming increasingly popular as they offer a more efficient and cost-effective way to transfer funds. Cryptocurrencies are also gaining mainstream adoption as more businesses and individuals begin to accept them as a form of payment.

P2P offers a number of advantages over traditional payment methods, such as credit cards or bank transfers:

They are much faster and can be processed almost instantly.
They are typically very low-cost or even free to make.
They offer increased security and privacy as no personal or financial information is exchanged between the parties.
P2P payments are becoming more convenient as more people adopt cryptocurrency wallets and use them for everyday transactions.

Overall, P2P payments offer a number of advantages over traditional methods of payment and are likely to continue gaining popularity in the years to come.

Some of the most popular P2P exchanges include Binance, Reminato and Paxful. These exchanges allow users to buy and sell Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other cryptocurrencies using a variety of payment methods, including PayPal, bank transfer, credit card, and even cash.

Advantages & Disadvantages of Peer-to-Peer Network


Peer-to-Peer network offers a number of advantages over the traditional financial system. Some of them include:

Decentralization: One of the main advantages of P2P is that it is decentralized. There is no central authority or middleman involved in the transactions. This makes the system more secure and less vulnerable to attacks.
Anonymity: Transactions made through P2P are anonymous. This means that your personal information is not shared with anyone during the transaction.
Lower costs: Since there is no middleman involved in P2P transactions, the costs are lower than in traditional financial systems.
Faster transactions: P2P transactions are usually faster than traditional ones because they don't have to go through a lengthy verification process.


However, P2P also has some disadvantages. These include:

Potential for fraud: Since P2P transactions are anonymous, there is a potential for fraud. This is because it's difficult to track down the person responsible if something goes wrong.
Lack of regulation: P2P systems are not regulated by governments or financial institutions. This means that there is no one to turn to if you have a problem with a transaction.
Volatile: The value of cryptocurrencies can be volatile. This means that the value of your investment can go up or down suddenly. You could lose your money if the value of the currency you're using decreases.

Overall, P2P systems have both advantages and disadvantages. You should carefully consider these before you decide to use one.


It is clear that cryptocurrency would not have been possible without the development of peer-to-peer technology. P2P allows for the exchange of value between two parties without the need for a third, such as a bank or other financial institution.

The potential of peer-to-peer technology is still being explored and it is clear that it has the potential to develop in many industries. Cryptocurrency is just one example of how P2P can be used to create a new type of economy.

I hope you have found this article interesting and informative. If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to leave them below. Thank you for reading and don't forget to join Coin98 Community for more interesting articles.